Management Unit of Sporades National Park

Management Unit of Sporades National Park

With the integration in Natural Environment and Climate Change Agency (NECCA) of the Management Body of National Marine Park of Alonissos-Northern Sporades , the Management Unit of Sporades National Park operates under N.E.C.C.A.’s Protected Areas Management Directorate (Sector A), based in Alonissos.

MD9

Its spatial area of jurisdiction includes the following Natura 2000 sites:

GR1430003 SKIATHOS: KOUKOUNARIES KAI EVRYTERI THALASSIA PERIO-CHI
GR1430004 ETHNIKO THALASSIO PARKO ALONNISOU – VOREION SPORA-DON, ANATOLIKI SKOPELOS
GR1430005 ISIA KYRA PANAGIA, PIPERI, PSATHOURA KAI GYRO NISIDES AGIOS GEORGIOS, NISOI ADELFOI, LECHOUSA, GAIDOURONI-SIA
GR1430009 NISIDES ASPRONISOS, ARGKOS, MARAGKOS, REPI,TSOUGKRIA, TSOUGKRIAKI KAI THALASSIA PERIOCHI NISON SKIATHOU KAI SKOPELOU

General Description

 

National Marine Park of Alonissos Northern Sporades 

The National Marine Park of Alonissos Northern Sporades includes the island of Alonissos, 6 smaller islands (Peristera, Kyra Panagia, Psathoura, Piperi, Skatzoura and Gioura) as well as 22 rocky islets. Under Directive 92/43/ EEC it is included in the NATURA 2000 ecological network under code GR 1430004, it is a Site of Community Importance (SCI) under Decision 613/2006 / EC of the European Commission and it has been designated as a Special Conservation Area (SPA) also, according to Law 3937/2011. At the same time, a part of Park’s area overlaps with the NATURA area under code GR 1430005, an area of size 129.67 km2, which has been characterized as a Special Protection Zone (SPA) according to the K.Y.A. No. 37338/1807 / E.103 / 2010 (Government Gazette B ‘/ 1495/2010).

In the early 1970’s began the efforts to protect the area. On August 31, 1986, the first decision was signed by the prefect of Magnesia in order to protect the Mediterranean seal (Monachus monachus) and its habitats. In 1988 follows a joint ministerial decision (JMD) 30781/1521/1988 (Government Gazette B ‘/ 68) for the protection of the Mediterranean seal which was then renewed in 1990 with JMD 49714/3453/1990 (Government Gazette B’ / 462). In May 1992, with the issuance of a Presidential Decree (PD), the land and sea areas of the Sporades were designated as a “Marine Park” and in June 2003 by a Joint Ministerial Decision (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Merchant Shipping and Ministry of Development) the area was characterized as a “National Marine Park” and the general management framework for the region was set:

– Alonissos is the only inhabited island of N.M.P.A.N.S. It is an island of size 64 km2 and morphologically, consists of extensive hills and low mountains with a maximum altitude 493 m that in the north end in steep shores. In the east, small flat plains are formed. The southern part is covered by pine forest, while in the north there is low vegetation with oaks, spruce and arbutus. The vegetation consists mainly of dense macchia with Quercus coccifera, Quercus ilex, Arbutus unedo, Juniperus phoenicea, pine forests and phrygana (Sarcopoterium spinosum).

– Peristera is an island of size 16 km2 with smooth hills up to 250 m high. There are few houses and it is inhabited seasonally by a few permanent residents of Alonissos. It is covered with low Mediterranean maccia vegetation and there are a number of small and larger bays around it.

– Kyra-Panagia, an island of ​​ size 25 km2 is the first island we meet heading to the northern part of the Park. It is a mountainous island with smooth terrain with a maximum altitude of 305 m. Two shallow bays, Agios Petros in the south and Planitis in the north, are safe natural harbors. It is covered by dense Mediterranean low vegetation with the predominant species being Pistaccia lendiscus and Kermes Oak (Quercus coccifera). Small plains, cliffs and hills with views, are the image inside.

– Gioura with an area of ​​ size 11 km2 is a rocky and rocky island with the highest altitude of the Park (570m) where many endemic species of flora and fauna are found. A species of goat (Capra aegagrus dorcas spp) survives on the island, which considered endemic.

– Psathoura with an area of ​​size 0.775 km2 is the northernmost island of the Park and the landscape here is completely different. It is a small flat island with a maximum height of 14m, of volcanic origin covered with clusters of heather (Erica arborea) and many other species of shrubs. There is a species of flora not found elsewhere in the Park, the endemic sea lily (Pancratium maritium).

– The island of Piperi with an area of ​​size 4.3 km2 and a maximum altitude of 354 m is the core of the Park and is subject to strict protection mainly because around it there are many sea caves which are unique breeding habitats of the Mediterranean seal. The aim of the restrictive measures is the protection of the most important habitat of the Mediterranean seal in the Park, but also of the predators that live and reproduce on the inaccessible rocks of the island, which has a rare flora. Steep rocky shores surround Piperi. The pine forest dominates, while there is no lack of Kermes Oak and phrygana, spruce and yarrow on the cliffs. It also has a rich birdlife with the most characteristic species being the black peregrine falcon (Falco eleonorae) due to the steep shores.

– Skantzoura with an area of size ​​6 km2 is a low island with a maximum altitude of 80 m and smooth terrain. The series of low hills ends in shores of white sand. It is covered by maquia vegetation and phrygana, while there is a forest with low juniper (Juniperus sp.). Both Skantzoura and the nearby rocky islets of Stroggylo and Polemika are important habitats for the Aegean gull (Larus audouinii) and the black peregrine falcon (Falco eleonorae).

According to Law 4519/2018, new areas of the Northern Sporades that are included in the NATURA 2000 network. These areas are:

– The rest of the NATURA network area under code GR 1430004 outside the National Marine Park, area of size 176.45 km2 which includes the southeastern Skopelos and the rocky islets of Agios Georgios. On the southeastern coastline of Skopelos there are 9-10 sea caves which are ideal breeding habitats for the Mediterranean seal Monachus monachus and as it has emerged from scientific research over time, are considered of equal importance to those in Piperi. The shores are steep and rocky and access to the caves is possible only from the sea. The vegetation consists mainly of Aleppo pine forests, Quercus coccifera macchia, a small Quercus ilex forest, Oleo-Ceratonion macchia, fruit trees and olive groves. There is also a rich bird fauna with predominant species the sea urchin (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) and the black peregrine falcon (Falco eleonorae).

– Koukounaries bay and the wider sea area with an area of ​​size 0.882 km2 which according to directive 92/43 / EEC has been included in the ecological network NATURA 2000 with code GR 1430003, is a Site of Community Importance (SCI) based on decision 613/2006 / EC of the European Commission and has been designated as a Special Protection Zone (SPA) according to Law 3937/2011.

– The perimeter coastline of Skiathos, the islets of Aspronisos, Argos, Maragos, Repi, Tsougria, Tsougriaki and the sea area between Skiathos and Skopelos with an area of ​​size 204.80 km2 which according to the directive 92/43 / EEC and according to ministerial decision 507 / 2017 (Government Gazette 4432 / Β ‘/ 2017), has joined the ecological network NATURA 2000 with code GR 1430009 as a special protection zone (SPA).

Institutional Framework

 

National Marine Park of Alonissos Northern Sporades

The National Marine Park of Alonissos Northern Sporades was the first marine area of ​​Greece that was characterized as a “Marine Park” and the largest in the Mediterranean. It was enacted by Presidential Decree (Government Gazette 519 / D ‘/ 1992) which was updated with the J.M.D. 23537/2003 (Government Gazette 621 / D’/ 2003). The purpose of the creation of the “National Marine Park” was the protection, conservation and management of nature and landscape, as a natural heritage and valuable national natural resource, due to its great biological, ecological, aesthetic, scientific, geomorphological and pedagogical value. In addition to the many rare species of flora, fauna and natural formations, in the Sporades area live and reproduce a significant population of the Mediterranean seal Monachus monachus, a species that has been defined as the number 1 endangered marine mammal.

The legal framework governing the region is:

 

EUROPEAN DIRECTIVES

Directive 92/43 / EEC on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora.

Directive 79/409 / EEC (as codified in Directive 2009/147 / EC) on the conservation of wild birds

 

INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES Convention, Washington, 1973)

Ratification from Greece: Law 2055/1992 (Government Gazette 105 / A ‘/ 1992).

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) regulates the international trade in endangered species of wild flora and fauna.

Barcelona Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Areas of the Mediterranean (Barcelona, ​​1976)

Ratification from Greece: Law 855/1978 (Government Gazette 235 / A ‘/ 1978)

The parties to the Barcelona Convention are 22. This is an international convention involving 21 countries bordering the Mediterranean (including 8 EU countries – Croatia, Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Slovenia and Spain) and the EU.

Bonn Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Fauna (Bonn 1979)

Ratification from Greece: Law 2719/1999 (Government Gazette 106 / A ‘/ 1999)

Approved by the EU with no. 82/461 / EEC: Council Decision of 24 June 1982 on the conclusion of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Fauna.

Berne Convention for the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern, 1979)

Ratification from Greece: Law 1335/1983 (Government Gazette 32 / A ‘/ 1983)

The Convention on European Wildlife and Natural Habitats was signed in Bern on September 19, 1979 and aims to promote cooperation between the Contracting States with a view to conserving wildlife and their habitats, as well as protecting endangered migratory species.

United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (Rio de Janeiro, 1992)

Ratification from Greece: N. 2204/1994 (Government Gazette 59 / A ‘/ 1994)

In June 1992, the decision-makers of 172 countries for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development met in Rio de Janeiro.

Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters. (Aarhus, 1998)

Ratification from Greece: Law 3422/2005 (Government Gazette 303 / A ‘/ 2005)

It is based on the need to protect, maintain and improve the state of the environment and to ensure sustainable and environmentally sound development, as adequate environmental protection is an essential factor for human well-being and the enjoyment of basic human rights.

 

PRESIDENTIAL DECREES

P.D. 67/81  “On the Protection of native flora and fauna and the definition of a procedure for coordination and control of research on them”, as corrected by the Government Gazette. 43 / Α’/ 1981 (Government Gazette 23/ A ‘/1981)

P.D. 519/92 “Characterization of the Land and Sea Areas of the Northern Sporades as a Marine Park” (Government Gazette A ‘/ 519)

P.D. 229/2012 “Approval of the list of small island wetlands and determination of conditions and restrictions for the protection and promotion of the small coastal wetlands included in it” (Government Gazette 229 / Τ.Α.Α.Π.Θ. / 2012)

 

LAWS

Law 1650/1986  “For the protection of the Environment” as amended and in force (Government Gazette 160 / A ‘/ 1986)

Law 2742/1999 “Spatial planning and sustainable development and other provisions” (Government Gazette 207 / A’/ 1999)

Law 3044/2002  “Transfer of building factor and regulations of other issues within the competence of the Ministry of Environment, Spatial Planning and Public Works”(Government Gazette 197 / A ‘/ 2002)

Law 3937/2011 “Conservation of biodiversity and other provisions” (Government Gazette 60 / A ‘/ 2011)

Law 4109/2013 “Abolition and merger of legal entities of the State and the wider public sector – Establishment of a General Secretariat for the coordination of government work and other provisions” (Government Gazette 16 / A ‘/ 2013)

Law 4519/2018 ” Protected Areas Management Bodies and other provisions” (Government Gazette 25 / A’/ 2018)

Law 4685/2020 ” Modernization of environmental legislation, incorporation into Greek legislation of Directives 2018/844 and 2019/692 of the European Parliament and of the Council and other provisions” (Government Gazette 92 / A ‘/ 2020)

 

MINISTERIAL DECISIONS

JMD 414985/1985 “Measures for the management of wild bird fauna” (Government Gazette 57 / B ‘/ 1985)

Ministerial decision of the Ministry of Culture / ARCH / Α1 / Φ43 / 2144/98 / 19-07-1997 that of the declared marine park of V. Sporades as an archeological site” (Government Gazette 6602 / Β ‘/ 1997)

JMD 33318/3028 / 11-12-98 “Definition of measures and procedures for the conservation of natural habitats (habitats) as well as wild fauna and flora (harmonization with Directive 92 / 43) (Government Gazette 1289 / Β ‘/ 1998)

JMD 23537/2003 “Characterization of the Land and Sea Area of ​​the Northern Sporades as a Marine Park”(Government Gazette 621Δ ‘/ 2003)

JMD US 14849/853 / Ε103 / 4-4-2008 “Amendment of the joint ministerial decisions no. 33318/3028/1998 (1289 / Β΄ / 1998) and No 29459/1510/2005 Joint Ministerial Decisions (992 / B ‘/ 2005), in compliance with the provisions of Council Directive 2006/105 of 20 November 2006 of the European Union (Government Gazette 645 / Β ‘/ 2008)

JMD U.S. Patent No. 37338/1807 / E.103 / 2010 “Determination of measures and procedures for the conservation of wild birds and its habitats / habitats, in compliance with the provisions of Directive 79/409 / EEC, “On the conservation of wild birds” of the European Council of 2 April 1979, as codified by Directive 2009/147 / EC” (Government Gazette 1495 / B ‘/ 2010)

JMD No. ΥΠΠΟΤ / ΓΔΑΠΚ / ΑΡΧ / Α1 / Φ43 / 60806/2748/2011 ” Approval of the redefinition of the marine archaeological site of the Northern Sporades – Alonissos” (Government Gazette 1741 / Β’/ 2011)

JMD US 8353/276 / Ε103 / 17-2-2012 “Amendment and supplementation of no. 37338/1807/2010 of joint ministerial decision “Definition of measures and procedures for the conservation of wild bird fauna and its habitats / habitats, in accordance with Directive 79/409 / EEC». ” (BD 1495), in accordance with the provisions of the first subparagraph of paragraph 1 of Article 4 of Directive 79/409 / EEC “On the conservation of wild birds” of the European Council of 2 April 1979, as codified by Directive 2009 / 147 / EC (Government Gazette 415 / Β / 2012)

JMD No. ΥΠΠΟΑ / ΓΔΑΠΚ / ΔΙΠΚΑ / ΤΠΚΑΧΜΑΕ / Φ53 / 12387/6960/772/240 “Establishment of Marine Archaeological Sites areas of the Sporades Islands and the Western Pagasitikos, P.E. Magnesia, Region of Thessaly” (Government Gazette 119 / Β ‘/ 2015)

JMD 50743/2017 “Revision of the national list of areas of the European Ecological Network Natura 2000” (Government Gazette 4432 / Β ‘/ 2017)

JMD No. YPEN / YPRG / 84580/8195 “Establishment of a visit entrance ticket in the A’ Zone of the National Marine Park of Alonissos – Northern Sporades”(Government Gazette 3832 / B ‘/ 2020)

JMD No. ΥΠΕΝ / ΔΔΦΠΒ / 79100/2510 “Amendment of the joint ministerial decision under RIS / ΥΠΡΓ / 84580/8195 – Northern Sporades “(3832 / Β ‘/ 2020)” (Government Gazette 4359 / Β ‘/ 2021

 

OTHER DECISIONS (REGION / DECENTRALIZED ADMINISTRATION)

Decision 1460/2001 “Establishment of a permanent wildlife refuge in the area” Diaselo “of the Municipality of Alonissos, Magnesia” (Government Gazette 904 / Β ‘/ 2001)

Natural environment

 

Northern Sporades are a complex of islands located in the NW Aegean, in the north of Evia and in the east of Pelion. The NATURA 2000 area with code GR1430004 includes the southeastern part of Skopelos and Alonissos, which are its only inhabited parts and smaller uninhabited islands and islets, with the exception of some guards and occasional shepherds. Most of the proposed area (94%) is covered by sea. In terms of their geology, most of the islands are limestone rocks with the exception of Psathoura, which has a purely volcanic origin. Near Psathoura there is an inactive volcano.

Valleys with steep slopes and torrents are formed in Skopelos. The vegetation consists mainly of Aleppo pine forests, Quercus coccifera macchia, a small Quercus ilex forest, Oleo-Ceratonion macchia, fruit trees and olive groves. The vegetation in Alonissos consists mainly of dense macchia with Quercus coccifera, Q. ilex, Arbutus unedo, Juniperus phoenicea, Aleppo pine forests and phrygana (Sarcopoterium spinosum). The pine forest in Skopelos and Alonissos has replaced the oak species that prevailed in the past. This was a result of the favor of the pine forests, because their wood is used in the construction of ships.

The Northern Sporades section that included in the area includes the National Marine Park and represents a unique complex of terrestrial and marine Mediterranean habitats. It includes many types of vegetation, priority marine habitats with excellent representativeness. It is also home to many species of plants and animals including endemic, rare or protected species as well as taxa at the southern or northern end of their range. Piperi Island is an area protected by the Barcelona Convention. Apart from its scientific and educational interest, the proposed area is also of great archaeological interest, as the islands have archaeological findings and prehistoric monuments, classical and Byzantine times (speleological findings, shipwrecks, old monasteries and churches). The numerous caves and beaches that are formed between the steep rocky shores are ideal shelters for the Mediterranean seal, whose population in the area is estimated to be the most important in the Mediterranean.

Piperi, the most important breeding area of ​​the Mediterranean seal, is the core of the marine park of the Northern Sporades. An isolated population of Capra aegagrus ssp. dorcas live exclusively in Gioura. Also noteworthy is the reptile fauna of the area which includes rare and protected species. The bird fauna is rich in species and includes a large number of migratory birds as well as many species that breed in the proposed area. The invertebrate fauna is also important as it includes many endemic species of isopods, especially in the cave of the Cyclops, in Gioura. Marine habitats are characterized by an abundance of species in good populations. The high diversity of marine species is due in part to the diversity of marine habitats (such as the excellent Posidonia meadows, reefs, etc.) and the lack of pollution. This fact makes the proposed area important from a systematic and zoogeographical point of view. Here, 170 species of fish, 70 species of amphibians and 40 species of sponges have also been recorded. The rich chasmophytic vegetation that includes many endemic species, is of great phytogeographical and ecological interest. There are species that spread to the southern Aegean, for which the Jurassic is the northernmost tip of their distribution.

 

HABITAT TYPES

Seabed areas with vegetation (Poseidonia), Shallow coves and bays, Reefs, Steep rocky shores with vegetation in the Mediterranean (with endemic Limonium spp.), Random moving dunes E, Mediterranean seas with ph, on steep rocky shores, Formations or formations or shrubby plant communities with Euphorbia dendroides, Phrygana Sarcopoterium spinosum, Pseudo-steppe with grassy and annual plants (Thero-Brachypodietea), Quince non-touristy, Sea caves wholly or partly below sea level, Warm riparian forests (Nerio-Tamaricetea), Quercus ilex forests, Mediterranean pine forests with endemic Pinus.

Habitat types based on existing legislation and their categorization, based on Community Directive 92/43 / EEC “On the conservation of natural habitats and of wild flora and fauna”, for the NATURA area (SCC) with code GR 1430004 ETHNIKO THALASSIO PARKO ALONISSOU VOREION SPORADON & ANATOLIKI SKOPELOS are classified as follows:

 

1110 Sandbanks which are slightly covered by sea water all the time
1120 Posidonia beds (Posidoniα oceanicae)
1150 Coastal lagoons
1170 Reefs
1210 Annual vegetation of drift lines
1240 Vegetated sea cliffs of the Mediterranean coasts with endemic Limonium spp.
1410 Mediterranean salt meadows (Juncetalia maritimi)
2110 Embryonic shifting dunes
3170 Mediterranean temporary ponds
5210 Arborescent matorral with Juniperus spp.
5330 Thermo-Mediterranean and pre-desert scrub
5420 Sarcopoterium spinosum phryganas
6220 Pseudo-steppes with grasses and annuals of the Thero-Brachypodietea*
8140 Eastern Mediterranean screes
8210 Calcareous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation
8310 Caves not open to the public
8330 Submerged or partially submerged sea caves
9320 Olea and Ceratonia forests
9340 Quercus ilex and Quercus rotundifolia forests
9540 Mediterranean pine forests with endemic Mesogean pines

 

FLORA

The islands are covered by Mediterranean coniferous forests, maquia vegetation with shrubs such as arborvitae, schino, fillyki, heather, ramno and Kermes Oak, often in the form of trees. We also find evergreen, such as the Cretan maple, the Agrielia, the Shrub Cypress and the rare tree Amelanchier chelmea. Phrygana with many species are still common. Particularly interesting is the chasmophytic flora, with several endemic plants, such as Campanula reiseri, Campanula rechingeri, Linum gyaricum, Arenaria phitosiana, etc. We still meet flowers and wildflowers.

ENDEMIC SPECIES OF FLORA

Sea lily (Pancratium maritimum)

Royal knight’s-spur (Consolida regalis)

Fritillary (Fritillaria sporadum)

Friar’s Cow (Arisarum vulgare)

Symphyandra sporadum

Campanula skopelia

Campanula sciathia

Scutellaria sporadum

Dianthus desideratus

Galium spp.

Aphanes minutiflora

Arenaria phytosiana

Campanula sporadum

COMMON SPECIES OF FLORA

Cretan Maple (Acer sempervirens)

Yellow kidney vetch (Anthillis hermanniae)

Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea ssp oleaste)

Crab apple (Phillyrea media)

Kermes Oak (Quercus coccifera)

Live oak or evergreen oak (Quercus ilex)

Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo)

Common myrtle Myrtus communis

Mastic tree or lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus)

Turpentine tree (Pistacia terebinthus)

Pink rock-rose (Cistus incanus-creticus)

Greek Oregano (Coridothymus capitatus)

Shrubby Jerusalem sage (Phlomis fruticosa)

Oregano (Origanum onites)

Rock samphire (Crithmum maritimum)

Common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)

Lea ess caper (Capparis orientalis)

Faskomilo (Salvia fruticosa)

Italian Honeysuckle (Lonicera carpifolium)

Goatweed (Hypericum perforatum)

High mallow (Malva sylvestris)

Meadow saffron (Crocus spp.)

Urce blanca (Erica manipuliflora)

IMPORTANT SPECIES OF FLORA

Scutellaria sporadum

Oyster plant (Scorzonera mollis)

Ophrys fusca

Wild fennel-flower (Nigella arvensis ssp.)

Malcolmia macrocalyx ssp.naxensis

Leontodon graecus

Yellowhead (Inula candida ssp. Limonella)

Helictotrichon cycladum

Helictotrichon convolutum

Tree spurge (Euphorbia dendroides)

Ivy-leaved cyclamen Cyclamen hederifolium

Greek Cyclamen (Cyclamen graecum)

Aspraackaho Crepis hellenica ssp.hellenica

Campanula reiseri

Campanula rechingeri

Mustard (Brassica cretica ssp aegaea)

Yellow kidney (Anthillis hermanniae)

Anthemis scopulorum

Anthemis flexicaulis

Plumeless Thistle (Carduus macrocephalus ssp.sporadum)

Centaurea raphanina

Saffron (Crocus sieberi ssp. Atticus)

Hanger (Galium reiseri)

Silene Multicaulis ssp.genistifolia

Stachys tetragona

Symphyandra sporadum

MARINE FLORA

Neptune Grass (Posidonia oceanic)

Seahorse grass (Cymodocea nodosa)

INVASIVE SPECIES

Halophila stipulacea

Caulerpa spp.

 

FAUNA

AVIFAUNA

The birds of the Northern Sporades are of great global interest with the main species:

Seabirds

Scopoli’s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea)

European Shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis)

Audouin’s Gull (Larus audouinii)

Yelkouan Shearwater (Puffinus yelkouan)

Herring gull (Larus argentatus)

Predators

Shaheen falcon (Falco peregrinus)

Bonelli’s Eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus)

Eleonora’s falcon (Falco eleonorae)

Snake Eagle (Circaetus gallicus)

Circus spp.

Little Owl (Athene noctua)

Eurasian Scops Owl (Otus scops)

Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo)

Other birds

Common Raven (Corvus corax)

Carrion crow (Corvus corone cornix)

Feral rock pigeon (Columba livia)

Common Swift (Apus apus)

Rock partridge (Alectoris chukar)

Bonelli’s Warbler (Phylloscopus bonelil)

Common Chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita)

Grey heron (Ardea cinerea)

Common Blackbird (Turdus merula)

Egyptian vulture (Neophron percopterus)

Water Pipit (Anthus spinoletta)

Phylloscopus trochllus

European Robin (Erythacus rubecula)

Eurasian Hoopoe (Upepa epops)

Morops aplaster

Orldus orlolus

Eurasian jay (Garullus glandarius)

Burhinus oedicnemus

Storm-petrel (Hydrobares pelagicus)

REPTILES

Marginated Tortoise (Testudo marginata)

Mediterranean Spur Thighed Tortoise (Testudo graeca)

Erhard’s Wall Lizard (Podarcis erhardii)

Skyros Wall Lizard (Podarcis gaigeae)

Rüppell’s Snake Eyed Skink (Ablepharus kitaibelii)

Mediterranean House Gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus)

Mediodactylus kotschyi

Four Lined Snake (Elaphe quatuorlineata)

Zamenis situlus

Sand Viper (Vipera ammodytes)

Marine reptiles

Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta)

Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas)

Leatherback Sea Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea)

MAMMALS

Wild goat (Capra aegagrus spp. dorcas)

Eastern European Hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor)

Common Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus)

European Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

MARINE SPECIES

Marine mammals

Mediterranean seal (Monachus monachus)

Common dolphin (Delphinus delphis)

Striped Dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)

Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncates)

Cuvier’s beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris)

Sperm whale (Physeter catodon)

ANTHOZOA

Oplet anemone (Anemonia viridis)

Red coral (Corallium rubrum)

Yellow Gorgonian (Eunicella cavolinii)

POLYCHAETA

Spiral Tube Worm Spirographis spallanzani

Protula tubularia

PORIFERA (SPONGES)

Verongia aerophoba

Chondrosia reniformis

CEPHALOPODA

Common Octopus (Octopus vulgaris)

European common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis)

European Squid (Loligo vulgaris)

ECHINODERMATA

Red Starfish (Echinaster sepositus)

Ophiopsila annulosa

Purple sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus)

CRUSTACEA

Spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas)

European lobster  (Homarus gammarus)

Deep-water rose shrimp  (Parapenaeus longirostris)

FISHES

Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus)

Albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga)

Mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

Lesser Silver Smelt (Sphyraena sphyraena)

Atlantic chub mackerel (Scomber colias)

Bogue (Boops boops)

European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus)

European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus)

Blotched picarel (Spicara smaris)

Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus)

European hake (Merluccius merluccius)

Saddled Seabream (Oblada melanura)

Mediterranean moray (Muraena helena)

Two-banded sea bream (Diplodus vulgaris)

Angler (Lophius piscatorius)

Red mullet Mullus surmuletus

Red scorpion fish  (Scorpaena scrofa)

Parrotfish (Sparisoma credence)

Common dentex (Dentex dentex)

Pink dentex (Dentex gibbosus)

Large-eye Dentex (Dentex macrophthalmus)

Annular seabream (Diplodus annularis)

Sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo)

White seabream (Diplodus sargus)

Common two-banded seabream (Diplodus vulgaris)

Pandora Pagellus erythrinus

Axillary seabream Pagellus acarne

Blotched picarel (Spicara maena)

Black sea bream (Spondyliosoma cantharus)

Sea horse (Hippocampus spp.)

Greater weever (Trachinus draco)

Chelidonichtys spp.

Stargazer (Uranoscopus scaber)

Broadbill (Xiphias gladius)

Dori (Zeus faber)

Mustelus spp.

Scyliorhinus spp.

Grouper (Εpinephelus guaza)

Golden grouper (Epinephelus costae)

Grouper (Epinephelus aeneus)

Bass groper (Polyprion americanus)

Garfish (Belone belone)

Common seabream (Pagrus pagrus)

Conger (Conger conger)

Amberjack (Seriola dumerili)

Rainbow wrasse (Coris julis)

Brown wrasse (Labrus merula)

Green wrasse (Labrus viridis)

Forkbeard (Phycis phycis)

Damsel fish (Chromis chromis)

Brown meager (Sciaena umbra)

Atlantic black skipjack (Euthynnus alletteratus)

Pelamid (Sarda sarda)

Gaper (Serranus cabrilla)

Painted comber (Serranus scriba)

Dover sole (Solea solea)

Action plan

 

MONITORING – MANAGEMENT ACTIONS

The Environmental Monitoring Program aims to evaluate the effectiveness of management measures that are applied and at the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the ecosystem’s parameters of the Park.

This program is prepared by the scientific and technical staff of the Management Unit throughout Park’s area and gives the opportunity to:

– Identify sensitive areas that need specific management measures.

– Assess the potential threats that exist in the area of ​​the Park.

– Evaluate the effectiveness of existing and proposed management measures, in order to effectively formulate the strategy for future management of the area.

– Record the views and attitudes of visitors so that the future communication strategy is more effective.

– Have a strategic and coordinated approach to the provision, management, analysis and application of scientific information.

Scientific research is necessary to:

– Ensure that decision-making is supported by scientifically substantiated information.

– Enhance the understanding of the variability of the physical parameters that characterize the ecosystems of the Park, as well as the reaction of the ecosystem to natural and man-made activities.

– Accurate scientific information given for the proper management of the Park.

The necessary information is given in order to plan the needs and priorities of the Management Unit.

Significant benefits for the Park are achieved through the effective application of new technologies and computers.

There is a complete scientific cooperation with other Bodies and Organizations involved in the Management of the Park.

The Management Unit is in charge of the Management of the Marine Park and its daily operation. The daily operation program includes the field actions and the daily activities which are necessary for the effective management of N.M.P.A.N.S. and it is implemented by the scientific and technical staff in collaboration with non-governmental organizations, universities, public bodies, professional organizations and the local community.

The protection of the special characteristics and elements of N.M.P.A.N.S. from illegal activities, is achieved with the cooperation of the Port Authorities of Skiathos, Skopelos and Alonissos. The staff consists of 6 people who based at the headquarters of the Agency in Patitiri, Alonissos and manage to achieve the effective management of the park through programs:

– monitoring, surveillance and guarding of the Park,

– informing and raising awareness of visitors,

– protection of natural resources and

– research

The implementation of a licensing system allows the Managing Unit to:

– Reduce potential negative impacts on sensitive ecosystems and areas used by large numbers of visitors.

– To encourage responsible behavior by all users of the Park.

– To collect valuable information for the effective management of the Park.

– To monitor the activities that can have serious negative effects on the ecosystem of the Park.

– Recognize and distinguish activities that may be conflicting.

In general, the following activities require a license.

– Most commercial type activities (professional and amateur fishing, agricultural, livestock and tourist activities mainly for zone A).

– The construction, operation and maintenance of infrastructure such as piers, marinas, etc.

– The repairs in archeological monuments, the installation of anchorages, etc.

– The research.

– The educational programs.

From 2011 according to article 3 par. 6 D. of JMD 23537/2003 (Government Gazette 621 / D ‘) and with a relevant decision of the Board of Directors of the Institution, the procedure of issuing entry permit is applied for all commercial fishing vessels that enter for fishing within the area of ​  N.M.P.A.N.S. except those who based in Alonissos (permanent residents of Alonissos).

The procedure of issuing an entrance ticket in the A ‘zone of N.M.P.A.N.S. according to J.M.D. No. ΥΠΕΝ / ΥΠΡΓ / 84580/8195 (Government Gazette 3832 / Β ’/ 2020) and its amendment J.M.D. No. ΥΠΕΝ / ΔΔΦΠΒ / 79100/2510 (Government Gazette 4359 / Β ’/ 2021) started from October 2021.

The daily program of operation of the Management Unit also intends to inform the users of the Park by offering specific information according to the needs of the different users. The staff of the Park provides information to ordinary visitors, to schools, groups, associations, professionals, etc., who need information about the daily operation of the park and the current regulatory measures.

 

SUPERVISION / GUARDING

Surveillance and guarding of such a large area requires a responsible and systematic approach. The surveillance vessels patrol the entire area on a daily basis, recording the state of the environment and controlling the activities in the area.

The Managing Unit considers that education and information make for the most effective strategy to encourage public compliance with the principles and regulations governing the Park. However, the strict implementation of the law and the imposition of sanctions are two important tools in the hands of the members of the Board for the implementation of the current legislation. It is obvious that the role of all those who are active in the Park, whether for entertainment or commercial purposes, is vital for the monitoring and implementation of the regulatory measures in force.

The reporting of illegal activities by the general public (fishermen, tourists, etc.) is an important source of information for the effective guarding of the Park and should in no case be underestimated.

MEANS OF SURVEILLANCE, CONTROL & RESEARCH

a) a polyester speedboat 11.28 meters long, b) an inflatable speedboat 4 meters long and c) a 4×4 [double-cabin (pick-up) vehicle] for surveillance, control, research and guarding of its responsibility area. In addition, it has complete scientific surveillance research equipment consisting of microscopes, stereoscope, cameras, underwater cameras, hydrophones, etc.

Anthropogenic Activity

 

RESIDENTIAL – CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT

Alonissos is located east of the other two large islands, Skiathos and Skopelos. Until 1965 the main settlement and the administrative center of the island was the old Alonissos “the old village” with the section that includes “the Castle”. Today the main settlement with all the administrative, commercial and cultural services and organizations is located in Patitiri where the port of the island is. Apart from Patitiri and “the old village” other settlements occupy the southeastern coast of the island where they are milder in terms of their geomorphology (Votsi, Rousoum, Steni Vala, Kalamakia etc.) than the northwestern ones. The ancient settlement, Kokkinokastro, was created on the coast.

Alonissos after 1204 came under the rule of the Venetians Andreas and Jeremiah Gizi along with the other islands of the Northern Sporades, Skiathos and Skopelos. The new rulers of the island completed and strengthened its fortifications in order to protect those inside. It is speculated that the roots of the area that includes “the Castle” date back to the period of Venetian rule or even earlier, to the Byzantine era. Old Alonissos is a traditional settlement that took its current form during the Turkish occupation. Characteristic is the narrowness of the area which is even more intense in the area of ​​the castle, where inside it were 74 houses according to written testimonies that were found, and those of small dimensions. The Castle has an image of a bean with dimensions length 85×90 ​​meters and width 40×45 meters. There was no special fortification wall. The north and west sides are of course forts.

HISTORICAL MONUMENTS AND NATURAL SIGHTS OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF ALONISSOS

Prehistoric monuments

Alonissos is very important for paleontologists. On the north side of Alonissos near Megali Ammos beach, there are large fossils of a prehistoric animal. Inside the island in Kastraki, Neolithic tools have been discovered.

Kokkinokastro

Northeast of Patitiri, is Kokkinokastro. It is a Venetian fort built on the site of an ancient citadel, the ruins of which are preserved to this day. Theocharis’ researches (1997) brought to light fossils from the Middle Paleolithic Age (100,000 to 33,000 BC), opposite Kokkinokastro. These fossils are the oldest signs of human existence in the Aegean. Remains of human settlement of the Neolithic era were found on Cape Kokkinokastro and the island of Vrachos in front of it. Also in the area of ​​Kokkinokastro were discovered skeletons of animals that lived on land, such as rhinos, small horses and deer, which proves that the level of Mediterranean waters in the middle Paleolithic period was about 90 meters lower than today and the animals could pass by land in the area of ​​today’s islands.

The Castle – Old Town

The town of Alonissos is in itself a monument. Chora, whose traditional houses were built in the 10th century, after the strong earthquake of 1965 had been abandoned by its inhabitants. In recent years, however, the area is showing growth as several foreign visitors and locals rebuilt the houses of the settlement and settled in the area mainly during the summer months but also during the winter. The area also presents significant economic activity as several shops have been created (restaurants, cafes-bars, folk art items, souvenirs, shops, etc.). At the top of the hill is a medieval fortification wall with a characteristic entrance, the so-called “Old Gate”. The building of Kazarma stands out, where during the Venetian and Turkish occupation the administration of the island was housed. Worth admiring in Chora are the churches of Christ (17th century), Agios Athanasios and Agios Georgios.

Byzantine Churches – Monasteries

During the Revolution of 1821, many Greeks who were persecuted by the Turks found refuge on the island. Alonissos during the Turkish occupation was a religious center with the result that churches and monasteries were built in Byzantine style. The monastery of Kyra Panagia and the Ascension, the church of Agioi Anargyroi, Agios Onoufrios and the church of Panagia on the Mountain stand out.

Historical Folklore Museum of Alonissos

Since 2000, it operates in Alonissos Historical and Folklore Center – Museum of Alonissos. This is a private initiative and life dream of the couple, Costa Mavriki and Aggeliki Agallou – Mavriki that began to be implemented on a privately owned plot in 2000. The Museum is located on the left side of the main port of Alonissos, Patitiri. The Museum in Alonissos is the link between the past and the long history of Alonissos with its modern world. On the first floor of the Museum the visitor has the opportunity to see objects from the war, such as weapons, mines and other objects that were on the warships. In the basement is the Folklore Museum which has traditional objects of Alonissos. In its exhibition spaces are exhibited collections that show the folklore tradition of the island and the findings related to the traditional works – professions that were done on the island and have disappeared due to the rapid technological development, such as blacksmith, horseshoe, resin, saddle, barrel, etc.

The Lighthouse of Psathoura

In the 18th century, after the consolidation of the Greek state and the development of shipping in Greece, the construction of lighthouses was deemed necessary. One of the places chosen for the construction of a lighthouse was the deserted island of Psathoura. The construction of the lighthouse began in 1893 by French Company which had been assigned the contract due to inexperience in the technology of lighthouse construction of the then Greek state. It is built of local black stone (due to the deactivated volcano in the area) which was collected from the coastline of the area and has been transferred to the foundation area. The wall of the tower is at the foundation 2 meters and going up it ends at 50 cm. It is considered one of the tallest lighthouses in the Mediterranean. From 1895 until the 1990’s, the French type knocker burned incessantly until it was replaced by an automatic electronic by the service of the P.N. where it belongs.

Alonissos Underwater Museum, Peristera (Classic Shipwreck of Peristera)

The Underwater Museum, founded in 2020, is the first of its kind classic shipwreck and open to the public in Greece. The wreck is now open to recreational divers, who will have the opportunity to explore it, under the guidance of experienced divers. Until October 2020, it operated in a pilot phase and is now open to everyone during the summer season. More information about the diving centers that organize visits to the shipwreck, you will find on our page “Contact”. This unique shipwreck was discovered by Kostas Mavrikis, a resident of Alonissos, who reported it to the Tax Office of Underwater Antiquities in 1984. After his own chronic efforts, in 1991 a preliminary surface survey was carried out by the head Mrs. Elpida Hatzidaki and the archaeologists and Elias Spondyli. Their discovery? An 11 ton barge built in 400 BC. with 3-4 thousand amphorae in its hold. Another theory that the ancient Greeks were not capable of building ships of this size was refuted. The area that the amphorae formed at the bottom was 22 to 30 meters long and 10 meters wide. Its depth was from 22 to 30 meters, while hundreds of amphorae were found that formed the outline of the ship. The amphorae are in three layers with the following technique: In the lower barn the first row was fixed on wooden bases or in sand. The other pointed ones came in from above and their pointed protrusion perfectly matched the openings formed by the lower ones. The amphorae contained wine that came from the first leg of Halkidiki (Mendi) and from Skopelos (Pepathithos). Both of these regions were among the most important wine-producing cities-states of the ancient world. The amphorae date back to around 400 BC.

 

ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVITIES

In addition to the Management Unit, there are two Non-Governmental Organizations operating in the area which cooperate perfectly with each other and with the Park Management Unit.

a) MOm, (Company for the Study and Protection of the Mediterranean Seal) is a Greek, non-profit, non-governmental Environmental Organization, founded in 1988 by a group of biologists of marine environment researchers.

The objectives of MOm are the study and acquisition of knowledge about the biology, ecology and behavior of Monachus monachus and the protection, both of its species and its habitats, by any legal means. MOm activities are carried out by a group of dedicated people of various specialties, biologists, environmentalists, researchers, field technicians, teachers, but also many volunteers. Its resources come from the subscriptions and donations of more than 6,700 members – supporters of its action, from public and private bodies and from its collaborations with the State and the European Union. In 1996 MOM was accepted as a member of the IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) as a national non-governmental organization.

MOm started in 1990 the action of rescuing and treating sick, injured and orphaned animals. The Mediterranean Seal Care and Rehabilitation Center is unique in the Mediterranean and is located in Steni Vala of Alonissos. The mobile Care Unit is a donation from the Seal Treatment and Rehabilitation Center in Pieterburen, the Netherlands.

b) The Thalassa Foundation which supports and promotes practices for the restoration and conservation of the Mediterranean marine resources. The degradation the marine ecosystems due to intensive exploitation makes it imperative to take initiatives for their future survival. It is at the forefront of combating habitat destruction and overfishing, as well as the effort to mitigate climate change due to man-made causes. Also, through participation and environmental initiative, it aims to achieve sustainable solutions and encourages the development of entrepreneurship, which is harmonized with sound environmental standards. Finally, through education and the promotion of various information activities, it communicates our vision and values ​​with the ultimate goal of sensitizing the public in relation to current environmental issues.

 

ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

FISHING

Professional fishing in the Pagasitic Gulf and Northern Sporades area is done with all fishing gear: Trawlers, Purse seine, Offshore gear (eg gillnets, trawl nets, surface longlines, bottom longlines, traps, etc.). Commercial fishing in the area of ​​Alonissos and the N.M.P.A.N.S done only with coastal fishing vessels with the following fishing gear: Nets, Longlines, Fish Traps, Lobster Traps.

AGRICULTURE

Alonissos is one of the least developed islands of the Northern Sporades. The spatial location of Alonissos (easternmost and farthest island of the Northern Sporades) has a direct impact on its current development picture, and its social characteristics differentiate it from the other Municipalities / islands of the Northern Sporades. In the past there was a significant increase in the primary sector (agriculture, livestock), but later the opportunities presented by tourism development affected the economic structure and increased employment in the tertiary sector. This resulted in the gradual abandonment of the land, despite the fact that its yield was one of the highest in the area.

LIVESTOCK

The character of the livestock production of the Northern Sporades is corresponding to that of the agricultural production. Specifically, its livestock consists mainly of goats. Comparisons between 1994 and 2001 show a 37% increase in livestock production. Its population is more than twice that of Skopelos and five times that of Skiathos. Of the 7000 goats, about 2500 are found on the island of Kyra Panagia and are considered semi-wild. There are still some goats on the island of Jura, but they are hybrids of the ibex, and they are called the ibex of the Jurassic and are not counted in the total population of goats. It is worth mentioning that goats are the main element of livestock in the Northern Sporades as a whole. In the other two islands the livestock is more evenly distributed. It should be noted here that in Alonissos there are no organized herds and they lack modern infrastructure. Also, in the municipality of Alonissos there is no Veterinary Clinic and the needs in this sector are covered by the veterinary clinics of Skopelos, Skiathos and Volos. Nevertheless, in Alonissos there is and operates the only slaughterhouse for animals in the area of ​​the Northern Sporades of state-of-the-art specifications, with the result that the slaughters are carried out in hygienic conditions and cover the needs of the island during specific periods (eg Easter) provided that a certified veterinarian is always present on the island during its operation.

FORESTRY

From a forestry point of view, the most important species are the pine, the evergreen broadleaves (aria, Kermes Oak) and the heather. The forest products produced from the forests and the forest areas of the area until today are the following:

– Artificial pine wood, mainly of short length, which is used for construction, box construction and micro-shipbuilding.

– Pine and evergreen broadleaf firewood.

– Charcoals from evergreen broadleaves.

– Resin.

– Heather roots

 

ACCESS – TOURISM

The tourists who visit the islands of the Northern Sporades are half men and half women, while most of them are foreigners (54.4%) and even English (16%). Other countries of origin are Italy, the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany. The average stay in the area is 8 days. As is the case with other areas of Greece in the area of ​​the park there is a strong tourist traffic mainly in the months of July – August.

For the recreation of tourists, the clean sea and its shores have priority. North of Patitiri are the most popular beaches, of which Agios Dimitrios, Leftos Gialos, Milia, Chrysi Milia and all the sandy beaches around Kokkinokastro stand out. Quieter choices are Megali Ammos, Agallou Lakka and small Mourtias. However, there are many remarkable cultural elements of Alonissos that are a pole of attraction for visitors such as the settlement of Chora, the remains of a cyclopean wall, an underwater shipwreck, a pirate museum and the remarkable churches (Nativity of Christ, Agios Athanasios, Agios Georgios and the chapels Evangelismos and Koimisi tis Theotokou).

There is interest in alternative forms of tourism and for sea tours in Zone A of the park. Foreign tourists come to Alonissos mainly with organized offices (tour operators), using as gateways to the area mainly the airport of Skiathos and secondarily the airport of Anchialos. They arrive in Alonissos by ferry (mainly by hydrofoil) and stay on the island for 1-2 weeks.

The islands of the park (beyond Alonissos) are a favorite destination for yachts. The Monastery of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary, which is part of the Holy Monastery of the Great Lavra of Mount Athos and the natural bays of Planitis and Agios Petros, which are important natural harbors for safe mooring and overnight stays on the island of Kyra Panagia, are an important attraction for many tourists during summer months.

The tourist activity in the area of ​​the Park shows an increasing trend, which mainly concerns the arrival of yachts and maritime tourism. The uncontrolled circulation of the boats and the incomplete information of the passengers about the regulatory provisions that apply in the N.M.P.A.N.S. may contribute to the ecological degradation of the area.

The increase in the number of visitors arriving at the park via ferry lines, creates the need to create infrastructure and can easily lead to residential development in the standards of mass tourism. In contrast to the large hotel units that characterize mass tourism, are the small accommodations which, however, often compete unfairly with the hoteliers by reducing the prices and degrading the quality of the services offered. The risk of aesthetic and substantial degradation of the landscape is real, as evidenced by the previous development of settlements in Alonissos, which was done without following the traditional architectural standards and without including infrastructure with ecotourism development standards (traditional hostels).

It should be emphasized that tourism is an economic activity and therefore the provision of tourism services is aimed at profit. Making a profit can be compatible with the management of protected areas as long as entrepreneurs respect the primary goal of protecting and preserving the identity of the areas. The planning of tourism activities in protected areas to be acceptable and realistic requires the participation / consent of the stakeholders.

For more information and for the time being, please visit the Management Body website:

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